Table of Contents

1  Introduction

2  Historical Context

3  Digital Computing

3.1  Growing Degree-Days

3.2  Growing Degree-Day Table

3.3  Reasoning Behind the Growing Degree-Day Approximation

3.3.1  Raw Data

3.3.2  Daily Average Temperature

3.3.3  Variability

3.3.4  Methods of Calculation

3.3.4.1  Single Sine

3.3.4.2  Cutoff

4  The "Phenology" Extension

4.1  The "WeeWX" Suite

4.2  Sample Output

4.3  "Phenology" Extension Installation

4.4  "Phenology" Extension Documentation

4.5  Phenology Models

4.5.1  start_date

4.5.2  Southern Hemisphere Adjustment

4.5.3  Biofixes

4.6  Skin Mods

4.6.1  generation_date

4.6.2  Charts

4.7  Phenology Image Generator

4.7.1  Themes

4.7.1.1  Blackboard

4.7.1.2  Yellowboard

4.7.1.3  Greenboard

4.7.1.4  Henry the Navigator

4.7.1.5  The Woods

4.7.1.6  Sperry 1100

4.7.1.7  Friden Flexowriter

4.7.1.8  Spring

4.7.2  Color Names

4.7.3  Image Options

5  Cydia Pomonella (Codling Moth)

6  Lifestages of the Codling Moth

6.1  Egg

6.2  Larva

6.3  Cocoon

6.4  Pupa

6.5  Adult

7  Horticultural Practice

7.1  Egg

7.1.1  Trichogramma Wasp

7.1.2  Granulovirus

7.1.3  Chemical Control

7.1.4  Horticultural Oil

7.2  Larva

7.2.1  Maggot Barriers

7.2.2  Chemical Control

7.2.3  Horticultural Oil

7.2.4  Manual Removal of Infested Fruit

7.2.5  Livestock

7.2.6  Disposal of Falls

7.3  Cocoon

7.3.1  Cardboard Bands

7.3.2  Wildlife

7.4  Pupa

7.5  Adult

7.5.1  Mating Disruption

7.5.2  Particle Film

7.5.3  Wildlife

7.5.4  Vinegar Trap

8  Weather

8.1  Parameters of the Codling Moth Model

8.2  Biofix

8.3  Critical Insect-Development Stages

8.4  Tracking Growing Degree-Days

8.5  Regional Differences

8.6  What Can Go Wrong

8.6.1  Microclimate

8.6.2  Miscalibration

8.6.3  Fuzzy Biofix

8.6.4  Unfavorable Weather

8.6.5  Missed Biofix

9  Chemical Control

9.1  Author's Apology

9.2  Under-Egg Ovicides

9.2.1  Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs)

9.3  Over-Egg Ovicides and Larvicides

9.3.1  Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs)

9.3.2  Neonicitinoids

9.3.3  Diamide

9.3.4  Pre-mixes

9.4  Larvicides

9.4.1  Application

9.4.1.1  Delayed Application

9.4.1.2  Advanced Application

9.4.2  Organophosphates (OPs)

9.4.3  Spinosyn

9.4.4  Oxydiazine

9.4.5  Carbaryl