Glossary

Calyx
The end of the apple (opposite the stem) where the remnants of the flower are found.
Diapause
A period of suspended development and growth accompanied by decreased metabolism in insects and some other animals. It is correlated with seasonal changes.
Frass
The excrement of the codling moth.
Heliacal
The heliacal rising of a star is when, after being in conjunction with the sun and invisible, it emerges from the light so as to be visible in the morning before sunrising. The heliacal or Sothic year is determined by the heliacal rising of Sothis (the Egyptian name for the Dog Star).
PHI
Preharvest Interval is the wait time between a pesticide application and when a crop can be harvested.
Pyrethrin
Pyrethrin or pyrethrum (PyGanic, Pyrenone) is produced in the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and is the forerunner of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. It is available as an emulsifiable concentrate, (PyGanic), or synergized by piperonyl butoxide (Pyrenone). Pyrethrin is labeled against a large number of pests. It may be moderately to highly effective against leafhoppers, aphids, pear psylla, apple maggot, codling moth, true bugs, caterpillars, mealybugs, plum curculio, and thrips. It is quickly broken down in the environment and may be used up to and including the day of harvest. Pyrethrin is relatively non-toxic to humans and other mammals, although the dust produces allergy attacks in people who are allergic to ragweed pollen. The acute oral LD50 is 1200 to 1500 mg/kg. It is toxic to fish, and has a low bee-poisoning hazard (Cooley et al.).
REI
Reentry Interval or Restricted Entry Interval is the amount of time workers have to wait before entering the field after pesticide treatments.
Systemic
Systemic insecticides become incorporated and distributed systemically throughout the whole plant.